One china policy is hot topic among the world leaders after winning election of US presidency by Donald Trump. US supporting one china policy from last 40 years, but now it comes on table of discussion or controversy, because newly elected president of United states America recently talk to President of Taiwan Tsai Ing-wen shows the hint that US will give recognition as independent country.
History of PRC (People Republic of China) and ROC (Republic of China)
China history starts from 1912, When China had its last king Qing dynasty of imperial rule. Imperial rule is there from 1644 to 1912 by Qing dynasty and their ancestors. After than china become the Republic of China.
Republic of China
After the end of Imperial rule, In 1928, the Republic was nominally unified under the “Kuomintang” (KMT) Chinese Nationalist Party, after the Northern Expedition, and was in the early stages of industrialization and modernization when it was caught in the conflicts among the Kuomintang government.
Rise of Communist Party of China
Conflict with government created new party the Communist Party of China, (founded 1921), which was converted into a nationalist party. Most development work were stopped due to fight with Japenese which took time from 1937 to 1945. Japanese surrendered to American and western alliances in September 1945.
People Republic of China
Just after surrender of Japanese, Widening gap between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party made a coalition government impossible, causing the resumption of the Chinese Civil War, in 1946. Due to wrong decision on political and military side by KMT led to defeat and its retreat to Taiwan.
Now mainland china is ruled by Communist Party of china which become People Republic of China and Kumintang Party which retreat to Taiwan still called their-self the original ruler of China.
One China Policy
Due to their history both RPC and PRC government claim “China”. PRC government made policy called ONe-China. The One-China policy refers to the policy or view that there is only one state called “China”, despite the existence of two governments that claim to be “China”. As a policy, this means that countries seeking diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC, Mainland China) must break official relations with the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) and vice versa.